Comorbidities

Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the loss of kidney function over a period of time. The kidneys play a vital role in making hormones as well...
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Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition that causes inflammation in the lining of the joints. It most commonly affects the hands, wrists and knees but...
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Peripheral Artery Disease

Peripheral arterial disease refers to a circulatory impairment that causes narrow blood vessels in the extremities resulting in decreased blood flow. The most common cause of...
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Hypertension

Hypertension is also known as high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing on the walls of the arteries. Normal blood pressure is...
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Gastric Ulcer/Gastrointestinal Bleed (GIB)

A gastric ulcer develops when the naturally occurring gastric acid damages the protective barrier (mucosa) of the stomach resulting in an open sore. Common causes of...
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Traumatic Brain Injury/ Post-Traumatic Headache

Traumatic brain injury occurs after an injury to the head. Classifications of TBI can be mild (like a mild concussion), moderate or severe. Symptoms will vary...
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Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is characterized by high pressure in the skull due to build up of cerebrospinal fluid that occurs due to an unknown reason. The...
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Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) vary in severity and occur usually due to falls, accidents or trauma. A complete spinal cord injury occurs when the spinal cord...
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Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder where nerve cells die in a part of the brain known as the substantia nigra. These nerve cells produce a...
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Superior Oblique Myokymia

Superior oblique myokymia is a condition that causes rapid eye twitching. The superior oblique is a muscle that helps control the eye movements. Myokymia means involuntary...
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Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy also known as apical ballooning syndrome, or “broken heart syndrome” is a reversible dysfunction of the left ventricle (the heart’s main pumping chamber). The...
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SUNCT/SUNA

Two types of trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs) are SUNCT and SUNA. SUNCT is also known as short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing....
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