What is Migraine Disease?
According to diagnostic criteria established by the International Headache Society, in order to be diagnosed with migraine disease, patients must have had at least 5 headache attacks that lasted 4–72 hours and the attacks must have had at least 2 of the following characteristics:
- Unilateral location
- Pulsating quality
- Moderate or severe pain intensity
- Aggravation by or causing avoidance of routine physical activity
In addition, during the headache the patient must have had at least 1 of the following:
- Nausea and/or vomiting
- Photophobia and phonophobia
Abortive therapies are used to treat symptoms when they occur.
- Medication types: NSAIDS, Triptans, Gepants, Ditans, Barbiturates
- Nerve blocks: Greater Occipital Nerve (GON) block, Trigger point injections
- Neuromodulation devices: Cefaly, gammaCore, Nerivio, Relivion
Preventive therapies are administered routinely to reduce the intensity and frequency of migraine attacks.
- Medication types: High Blood Pressure Medications, Antidepressants, Anti-seizure medications, Supplements, Vitamins, OnabotulinumtoxinA, Gepants, CGRP Monoclonal Antibodies
- Neuromodulation devices: Cefaly, gammaCore
- Behavioral therapies: Cognitive behavioral therapy, biofeedback, mindfulness
Children and Migraine
When a child complains of a headache, the first step should be to take the complaint seriously.
Migraine is one of the most common neurologic conditions in children. It can create significant childhood disability by causing absences from school. This also can interrupt parents' work and family schedules. It is estimated that children with migraine lose one and a half weeks more schooling per year than their peers. A questionnaire, PedMIDAS, was developed to assess migraine disability in pediatric and adolescent patients.
It has been estimated that about 10% of children between 6 and 20 years of age have migraine. Attacks can begin at an early age and the prevalence increases with age:
- 3% in children ages two to seven
- 5% percent in ages seven to eleven
- 5% of boys and 10% of girls during puberty, ages eleven and older
It can be very helpful for clinicians to provide school nurses with personalized treatment recommendations, or a Migraine Action Plan for each child with migraine.
Migraine Comorbidities Library
This program explores the relationship between migraine and more than 75 comorbid diseases. Our goal is to bring awareness and education to new audiences, help patients recognize that they may be living with comorbid conditions and strengthen resources through collaboration with other leading organizations.
Each comorbidity has a brief overview on our website and will be linked to a comprehensive blog post. The blog post will share in-depth information about the disease, its relation to migraine, treatments and patient resources from our allied partners.
All blogs are medically reviewed by an expert in the field.
CME for your doctor
Print and share this handout with your primary care physician, gynecologist, dentist, nurses and other healthcare providers!