Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition where a person experiences recurrent feelings of intense fear, helplessness and/or horror following a traumatic event. Two to three times more women experience both PTSD and migraine than men.1

PTSD is more prevalent in those living with migraine than in the general population (14–25% vs 1–12%).2

Ischemic Stroke

An ischemic stroke, the most common type of stroke, occurs when an artery in the brain becomes blocked due to a blood clot. This results in an area of the brain with decreased blood flow and therefore not receiving oxygen and nutrients which can cause cells to die.

The Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry found that the relative risk of ischemic stroke is doubled in people who have migraine with aura compared to migraine-free individuals.1

Hemorrhagic Stroke

In a hemorrhagic stroke, a weakened artery ruptures and causes bleeding within the brain or in the tissue surrounding the brain. This leads to increased pressure and swelling in the brain. The area of the brain affected is deprived of oxygen rich blood.

“Sacco (2013), found the risk of hemorrhagic stroke increased by 50% in subjects with any migraine compared with nonmigraineurs.”1

Headache After Stroke

It is important to note that headache and/or migraine disease may occur after having a stroke, depending on the location and the severity of the stroke. A new onset headache during the ischemic stroke can raise the risk of having persistent headaches post-stroke which can lead to significant disability.1


Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition that causes widespread pain throughout the body, primarily affecting muscles, bones and joints. Individuals experience a hypersensitivity to both painful and non-painful stimuli. Migraine disease and fibromyalgia are both disabling conditions frequently coexisting together and share a bidirectional relationship, especially in women. Studies have found that 20-36% of those with migraine disease also have fibromyalgia and 45-80% of those with fibromyalgia also have migraine.1


Epilepsy is a neurological condition that occurs when a person has two or more seizures that are not attributable to another cause. There are many commonalities among those who have migraine and epilepsy including symptomatology, genetics and pathophysiology.

“According to Liao et. al (2018), the risk of patients who have idiopathic epilepsy getting migraine with aura is roughly double. Accordingly, patients with migraine also increased the risk of getting epilepsy.”




COVID-19 has affected millions of people worldwide and has caused more than 4.2 million deaths as of August 2021.1 Headache is the most common neurological symptom among those infected with COVID-19.2 The pathophysiology of COVID-19 headache is currently unknown but due to similarities with migraine, it may lead to more information about migraine disease.

*The contents of this information is intended for general informational purposes only and does not constitute professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of a physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. The writer does not recommend or endorse any specific course of treatment, products, procedures, opinions, or other information that may be mentioned. Reliance on any information provided by this content is solely at your own risk.